The appoggiatura is a nonharmonic tone played on the beat or strong part of the beat before resolving to a chord note:

For some theorists (W. Piston, Harmony), the following examples are also appoggiatura. Other theorists call them suspensions or - in the case of the second example with an ascending resolution - retardation (Turek, The Elements of Music):

Musical examples:

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José Rodríguez Alvira.