Diminished third, 1 whole step or 2 half steps
Minor third, 1 1/2 whole steps or 3 half step
Major third, 2 whole steps or 4 half steps
Augmented third, 2 1/2 whole steps or 5 half steps
A third can be identified by analyzing the seconds between the lower and higher notes and a middle note inside the third. For example, the third C-E has two seconds: C-D and D-E. Using the following table we can find out the quality of the third:
If the seconds are: then the third is: minor - minor diminished major - minor minor major - major major augmented - major augmented
Following this method we find that the third C-E is a major third because both seconds (C-D, D-E) are major seconds.
If any note has accidentals, we can determine the quality of the interval without accidentals and then analyze the effect of the accidentals:
- Make all notes natural. A-B is a major second, B-C is a minor second, so A-C is a minor 3rd.
- Add a flat to A. The interval is now a major third.
- Add a flat to C. the interval is now a minor third.
Other ways of identifying thirds
- Associating thirds with scales, triads, etc. For example, the third D-F# can be associated with the I and III degrees of the D Major scale, or with the third of the D Major triad. If we know that the third from the I to III degrees in major scales and the third of a major chord are major, we know then that D-F# is also a major third.
- Memorizing all major and minor thirds. Start with major thirds and continue with minor thirds. You will learn them with practice.
- Learning the number of steps for each type of third and counting the whole and half steps (not recommended).