#### Second phrase, measures 5 to 8

In the fifth measure the harmonic scheme gets more interesting:

 Measure 5, 2nd and 3rd beat E major's V degree chord is followed by a G major chord. G major is the III degree of E minor (modal interchange). Measure 5, 4th beat G major is used as a dominant chord. Measure 6 C major is used as an F major chord and it is followed by a G minor chord (2nd beat) before the F major dominant chord reappears in the 3rd measure. Measure 7, beats 1 and 2 The dominant chord of F major resolves to an A major chord and is followed by a vii degree chord of D minor. Measure 7, beats 2 and 4 D minor's vii degree (C# - E - G - Bb) is used as an Ab's vii degree (G - Bb - Db - Fb) and is followed by an Ab's ii and vii degrees Measure 8 Cadence to Ab flat major key (3rd beat). Ab major becomes an Ab minor chord and it is used as E major iii degree (Ab = G#) followed by E major dominant chord.

Three modulation methods are used by Chopin in these four measures:

Modal Interchange - using a chord from the parallel minor key. G major is E minor's III degree chord and it is used as V/V chord of F Major. Modal interchange is also used to transform Ab major to an Ab minor chord (G# minor) that allows the chord to be used as an E major iii degree chord.

Irregular resolution or common tone - the F major dominant chord is followed by an A major chord (both chords share the note E).

Diminished chord - The D minor vii chord (C# - E - G - Bb) is used as Ab's vii degree (G - Bb- Db - Fb). Db = C# and Fb = E.

© 2018 José Rodríguez Alvira. Published teoria.com